Converting switchgrass to biofuel essay
An amazing finding in second generation bioethanol from perennial grasses has shown a promising result scientists at the usda might have found a way to keep switchgrass forever young and better for cellulosic ethanol. This process can reduce the cost of switchgrass in the biofuel production process, which can lower the cost of the biofuel another example is the work by researchers at lawrence berkeley national laboratory and the joint bioenergy institute to produce switchgrass-based aviation biofuel. Converting switchgrass to electricity would also reduce greenhouse gases by 108 percent more than if the feedstock were converted to ethanol, according to the study the analysis noted that biofuel-powered power plants could even become carbon-negative energy sources if they used carbon capture and sequestration (ccs) technologies that remove. Ethanol ethanol is the main liquid biofuel and can be produced from switchgrass through the two major processes described below biochemical conversion: in cases of corn grain and sweet sorghum stalks, sugars are directly fermented to ethanol by adding enzymes and yeast.
Despite market-based incentives and mandated production, the us cellulosic biofuel industry has been slow to develop this dissertation explores the economic factors that have limited industry development along with important economic tradeoffs that will be encountered with commercial-scale production the first essay provides an overview of the policies, potential, and challenges of the. The increase in plant yield and sugar release—demonstrated in both greenhouse and field trials for switchgrass—bodes well for creating biofuels, an important alternative to fossil fuels. Switchgrass is a perennial grass native to much of the prairie it grows extremely quickly, sometimes up to 22 metres tall it grows on land not considered suitable for food crops, yielding about.
Unlike corn, using the cellulose in switchgrass to make ethanol requires less energy from fossil fuels furthermore, cellulose ethanol contains more energy than corn ethanol, so there's a dramatic reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. Examining the impacts of switchgrass derived biofuels on us biofuel policy and gwp of switchgrass biofuel production to meet the rfs2 target volumes for cellulosic that the desired biofuel, either feedstock, conversion process, or targeted volume replacement, may not be as beneficial intended. Energy crops and agricultural residue, like corncobs and stover, are becoming part of rural america’s energy future unlike the more common biofuel derived from corn, these are non-food/feed based cellulosic feedstocks, and the energy content of the biomass makes it ideal for converting to sustainable fuel. Switchgrass ethanol americans use 140 billion gallons of gasoline each year, but only 48 billion gallons is produced from ethanol and approximately 95% of ethanol is corn based (montenegro)many experts believe there is major potential in ethanol as a fuel source, but some obstacles must be overcome. Conversion of switchgrass to ethanol using dilute ammonium hydroxide pretreatment: influence of ecotype and harvest maturity bruce s dien usda-ars national center for agricultural utilization research, [email protected] patricia j o'bryan usda-ars ronald e hector usda-ars.
To meet that remaining demand, the report invokes technological advances in conversion efficiency of switchgrass to ethanol, thermochemical conversion of the nonfermentable components of switchgrass to gasoline and diesel, and a boost in field productivity from the current 5 tons per acre per year to about 124 tons per acre per year, a. Grass makes better ethanol than corn does midwestern farms prove switchgrass could be the right crop for producing ethanol to replace gasoline. Used as a biofuel source switchgrass seeds are planted because of them being a warm season grass with the ability to produce moderate to high biomass yields on marginal lands switchgrass is a bunch grass averaging 3 to 5 feet tall. Switchgrass is a promising biofuel alternative to corn, but farmers, environmentalists and biofuel developers, find deciding on the right time to harvest particularly thorny. Panicum virgatum, commonly known as switchgrass, is a perennial warm season bunchgrass native to north america, where it occurs naturally from 55°n latitude in canada southwards into the united states and mexico.
Converting switchgrass to biofuel essay
Switchgrass grown for biofuel production produced 540 percent more energy than needed to grow, harvest and process it into cellulosic ethanol, according to estimates from a large on-farm study. Biofuels and agriculture a factsheet for farmers viable for converting plant fiber to ethanol a portion of the agricultural and forestry residues (stalks, leaves, branches) which are switchgrass is a high-yielding perennial grass that grows well over most of the central and eastern united. For example, when the researchers compared miscanthus and switchgrass production necessary to produce a given biofuel volume, they found that converting land to miscanthus had a lower warming. Scientists seek key to converting algae to biofuel march 10, 2016 university of florida institute of food and agricultural sciences researchers may have found a key to converting algae to fuel.
- Graduate theses and dissertations iowa state university capstones, theses and dissertations 2012 essays concerning the cellulosic biofuel industry.
- It has been touted as an even better candidate for cellulosic ethanol production than switchgrass, and is already being used on a commercial scale in europe, where it is a native species, for that purpose it’s invasive tendencies provide little incentive to plant it elsewhere, however.
- Switchgrass to ethanol production john pangle april 12, 2007 outline introduction benefits of switchgrass problems ethanol fuel energy balance conclusions introduction ethanol is a biofuel a form of stored solar energy combined with gasoline to reduce fossil fuel consumption most cars in the us can operate with a mixture of 10% ethanol flex fuel vehicles introduction warm season grass can be.
Abstract with dwindling oil reserves and growing environmental concerns, researchers are looking at producing sustainable biofuels and chemicals from renewable resources like switchgrass. A switchgrass-ethanol cycle consists of two parts: (1) repeated harvests of switchgrass grown on large industrial plantations, followed by drying, compacting and baling the harvested grass, and transporting the bales to a remote reﬁnery. Essay about converting switchgrass to biofuel 1838 words | 8 pages introduction: people need energy, it’s a fact we need it for our cars, for our televisions and for our ipods. Biofuels as a fuel source: paper 3 in a time of energy crisis and a subsequent search for a renewable replacement for crude oil, biofuels have arisen as a source of hope currently, the largest source of biofuels in the united states is corn-based ethanol.